Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences <p><br><br></p> en-US <p><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5037">Articles in the Journal of Liaquat University of Medical &amp; health sciences are open access articles under a&nbsp;</span><a id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5038" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";q=;source=gmail&amp;ust=1488520198187000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGWIB6wh7wbxzRD1rqf0TeVvfij-g"><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5039"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License</strong></span></a><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5040">.</span><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5041">This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium; provided the original work is properly cited and initial publication in this journal. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.<span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5042">&nbsp;In addition to that users are allowed to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms</span>.</span></p> (Prof. Ali Muhammad Waryah) (Mr. Mansoor Ali Bughio) Sat, 25 Jun 2022 21:27:46 +0500 OJS 60 Postgraduate Education: The Innovative Development and Program Execution <p><strong>Postgraduate Education: </strong><strong>The Innovative Development and Program Execution</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah , Muzaffar Ali Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of COVID-19 Vaccination on the Attitude of Health Care Workers Toward Preventive Measures. <p><strong>Objective:</strong>The purpose of this study was to compare the pre- and post-vaccination effects of vaccination on a variety of COVID SOPs and to determine whether or not HCWs take adequate precautions.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Between May and July 2021, we conducted this cross-sectional study. We distributed an online survey form via social media platforms, which was completed by male and female house officers, medical officers, postgraduate trainees or residents, and specialists/consultants at Holy Family Hospital in Rawalpindi.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our study enrolled 104 volunteers. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 30 years. Males constituted more than half of the study population. The most frequently used designation was postgraduate trainees/residents, which accounted for 34% of all participants. 100% of medical professionals used masks prior to vaccination. 45% of medical professionals practised social distancing. 14 of the participants discontinued the use of masks following vaccination. Hand washing and sanitizing habits decreased by 14.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> HCWs are becoming more lax with preventive measures, and there has been a downward trend in compliance with COVID-19 SOPs. To increase vaccine uptake and address the multifaceted effects of infection, we must continue to make additional efforts to change the attitudes of uncertain healthcare workers.</p> Muhammad Raheel Raza, Furqan Ali Taj, Hassan Mumtaz, Syed Muhammad Ismail, Ramsha Amjad, Hamza Ehsan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Knowledge and Practice among Public Health Nurses in Disaster Response Phase <p><strong>A disaster can be delineated as an occurrence that threatens and disrupts people's lives and means of subsistence caused by natural, non-natural, and human factors, resulting in loss of life, environmental damage, loss of property, and psychological consequences. As a flexible profession that covers all conditions, nurses, particularly PHNs, are expected to be limited to providing care in the community and required to work in conditions of disaster emergency response. This literature review aims to identify the knowledge and perceived ability to practice of PHNs in the disaster emergency response phase. The study is based on a systematic review approach. The source of information for the present study derived from Internet-based literature, in the form of research results from online libraries at the local, national and international levels. Totally 43 references were used to establish this review study. The knowledge and perceived ability to practice PHNs in the disaster response phase will typically be identified in six viewpoints: warning, triage of disasters, saving and stabilizing lives, surveillance, risk communication, and technical skills. Therefore, handling situations among the alert and steady states is quite atypical; hence nurses must skillfully and technically deal with these conditions.</strong></p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: Nurses, Public Health Nurses, Disaster Management, Disaster Nursing, Response Phase</strong></p> Ardia Putra, Hajjul Kamil, Yuswardi Yuswardi, Budi Satria Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 RIPASA Scores; a Reliable Score for Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To establish the diagnostic precision of the RIPASA score for Acute Appendicitis taking histopathology as a gold standard. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: Cross-Sectional Study using </strong><strong>non-probability consecutive sampling</strong><strong> including 484 patients of both gender with migratory abdominal pain to right iliac fossa &lt; 7 days, Fever ?101°F, and WBC &gt;10000mm</strong><strong><sup>3</sup></strong><strong>. This study was carried out at General Surgery Department, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from May 2017 to February 2018.Patients with ASA scores III-VI, gangrenous appendicitis, peritonitis, and pregnant women were excluded. RIPASA score was assessed on admission, score summated, and had no effects on management. A score&gt; 7.5 was considered positive for acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was made clinically and with the help of abdominal sonography. Postoperatively specimens were sent for histopathology; results were noted, and diagnostic accuracy was recorded. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: The age range was 20 to 50 years with a mean of 33.892±7.36 years, mean duration of complaint was 3.161±1.16 days, and mean weight was 79.402±8.42 Kg. The majority of patients were males (68.4%). Ripasa score &gt; 7.5 diagnosed 78(16.1%) and 83(17.1%) confirmed by histopathology. Ripasa score &gt; 7.5 had 83.1% sensitivity, 97.8% specificity and diagnostic accuracy 95%, PPV 88.46%, NPV 96.55%, Likelihood positive and negative ratio 37.04 and 0.172 respectively. Ripasa score of 6.5 had a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 94.3%, as shown by the ROC curve and its coordinates.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: RIPASA is a manageable and comprehensive scoring system with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing acute appendicitis.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Acute appendicitis, RIPASA, Diagnostic accuracy, Right Iliac fossa’s pain, ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), Reliable score.</strong></p> Abdul Malik Magsi, Mariam Malik, Muhammad Iqbal Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Frequency of C4d Positivity in Membranous and other Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsy Specimens in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the frequency of C4d positivity in Membranous and other Glomerulonephritis in renal biopsy specimens.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This </strong><strong>cross-sectional study </strong><strong>was carried out in the Pathology Department, Ziauddin Medical University and Hospital, Karachi, from December 2018 to April 2019. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used.. </strong><strong>A sample size of 91 patients was calculated and selected by open EPI software with a 95% confidence interval. All patients of either gender with a clinical history of Glomerulonephritis were included. </strong><strong>The diagnosis was made on sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) along with special stains. Immunohistochemistry was performed on selected biopsies with glomerular basement thickness using the peroxidase-anti peroxidase technique for C4d. Patient data were compiled and analyzed through a statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0. P-value ?0.05 was considered significant. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: A t</strong><strong>otal of 91 cases of the renal biopsy were evaluated. There were 51.6% (47/91) were male, and 48.4% (44/91) were female patients. </strong><strong>There were 49 (53.8%) cases reported as Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 35(38.5%) were diagnosed as Membranous Glomerulonephritis, and 07 (7.7%) cases were reported as Mesangiocapillary Glomerulonephritis.</strong></p> <p><strong>The frequency distribution of C4d staining results in Membranous Glomerulonephritis was 100% (35/91), Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis 100% (7/91), and Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was 0% (0/91).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: C4d positivity on immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be an important marker for diagnosing membranous nephropathy. </strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong><strong>: Glomerulonephritis, Immunofluorescence, </strong><strong>immunohistochemistry</strong><strong> C4d Positivity.</strong></p> Maria Shafique, Uzma Bukhari, Suresh Kumar, Muhammad Raza, Asma Bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Frequency, Risk Factors, Management Options and Fetomaternal Outcome of Uterine Rupture in Pregnancy <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To analyze the frequency, risk factors, management options and fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture in pregnancy.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This observational cohort study was conducted at the department of obstetrics &amp; gynaecology, Unit II Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College Hospital Sukkur, from January 2018 to December 2020. All pregnant women above 24 weeks gestational age admitted with or developed uterine rupture at the hospital were included. Women with less than 24 weeks gestational age or who developed uterine rupture after vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) in a hospital or admitted with this complication were excluded from this study. Data was collected on specially designed Performa after taking informed consent. The student's T-tests have been applied. SPSS Version 16 was used to analyze data.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Total number of uterine rupture cases was 32(0.6%) out of 5204 deliveries for three years. The most typical age group of patients was 26-35, about 43%, grand multiparous in (60.2%) cases. Previous Caesarean Section in 18 (56.2%) was the most commonest risk factor. Repair of the ruptured uterus was the primary management option in 22 (68.75%), followed by Caesarean Hysterectomy in 10(31.2%) cases. Maternal mortality was in 1(3.1%) patient. Perinatal mortality was 26(81.2%), and 6(18.75%) were alive babies.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: This study concludes that previous cesarean section is the leading cause of rupture uterus, followed by injudicious use of oxytocin. Proper Antenatal care and training programs for healthcare providers and traditional birth attendants (TBA) are needed to prevent this severe but avoidable complication.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Rupture uterus, previous caesarean section, Hysterectomy, oxytocin, vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC).</strong></p> Rubina Hafeez, Rabia Hafeez Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Outcome of Platelets Rich Plasma (PRP) in Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the effectiveness of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of Plantar fasciitis.</strong></p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: A Quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Department of Orthopedics, <br />Ward-17, JPMC, Karachi, from July 2018 to June 2019. Diagnosed cases of plantar fasciitis, age ranging from 20-60 years, both genders, with failed conservative treatment of 3 months willing to undergo treatment with PRP injection were included. Patients with a previous history of calcaneal fractures, infection, osteoarthritis of currently affected limbs, skin wounds or lesions, diabetes mellitus and other causes of heel pain were excluded. The selection was made from the outdoor department, and intervention was done as a daycare procedure. Two-three ml of centrifuged PRP was injected into the heel. Patients were followed up at 1, 3 and 6-month intervals post-procedure. Findings were recorded on a predesigned proforma VAS, and Roles and Maudsley scoring was done. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Two hundred and ninety-five patients were enrolled in the study. There were 5 (1.69%) males and 290 (98.3%) females. 100 (33.89%) patients were between 20-40 years. 195 (66.10%) patients were between 41-60 years. By 3</strong><strong><sup>rd</sup></strong><strong> follow-up visit, i.e., six months post-intervention, excellent results were obtained in 149 (50.5%) patients. 136 (46.1%) showed good (VAS = 1 to 4) results, 07 (2.37%) had acceptable (VAS = 4 to 6) results and 03 (1.01%) had poor (VAS ? 7) results. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: The present study reported that Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection successfully improved pain symptoms in most patients, with at least half of the population reporting excellent </strong><strong>outcomes. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Inflammation, Platelet-rich plasma, Plantar fasciitis.</strong></p> Farhan Saleem, Kashif Mahmood Khan, Iftikhar Ahmed Memon, Pervez Ali, Zulfiqar Ali, Sadaf Junejo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 To Determine Clinical Outcome of Platelet Rich Fibrin in Pulpotomy of Permanent Teeth in Irreversible Pulpitis <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in Pulpotomy of permanent teeth in irreversible pulpitis. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This observational study was conducted in the Department of Operative Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro / Hyderabad, from January to December 2019, through the non-probability purposive sampling technique. Fifty patients were included of both genders, ranging from 18-50 years. Irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed by lingering pain on hot and cold touch with normal peri-apical status. The written consent was taken from all participants. Each patient was evaluated clinically for the presence of pain, and peri-apical radiographs were taken. A visual analog scale (VAS) measured patients' pain before and after treating pulpitis. After treatment of patients, the efficacy of PRF was evaluated by a pain scale. The results were statistically compiled by SPSS version-21 and applying the "</strong><strong><em>t</em></strong><strong>"-test. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: The severity of pain was observed as; severe in 18 (36%), moderate in 28 (56%) and mild in 4 (8%) patients before starting the treatment. After 24 hours treating with PRF, 40 (80%) patients became pain-free, 1 (1%) with moderate, while the 9 (18%) patients were observed with mild pain; the results obtained were highly significant with a p-value &lt;0.05. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: PRF is effective for treating irreversible pulpitis occurring in permanent teeth.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: PRF, VAS, Permanent teeth, Pulpotomy, irreversible pulpitis.</strong></p> Ashique Hussain Sahito, Saleem Raza Khuhawar, Abdul Latif Jokhio, Muhammad Rafique Tagar, Mushtaque Ahmed Shaikh, Mujeeb Rehman Kalwar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Frequency of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Lichen Planus: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the relationship between lichen planus (LP) and dyslipidemia. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: It was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted at the department of dermatology, Liaquat University of Medical &amp; Health Sciences, Hyderabad, from October 2016 to April 2017. The study included both genders aged 20 to 50, including all patients with cutaneous lichen planus of more than one month. Each patient's blood sample (after 8 hours of fasting) was collected and sent to the LUMHS diagnostic and research laboratory for lipid profile (elevated total cholesterol higher than 200mg/dL and elevated LDL-C higher than 130mg/dL in LP patients). Where a consultant pathologist prepared each report (at least three years of post-fellowship experience), and the presence or absence of dyslipidemia was noted. All of these data were recorded on a specially designed pro forma. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong><strong>Mean age was 31.23±7.27 years. Out of 100 patients, 51 (51.0%) were male and 49 (49.0%) were females with a ratio of 1:1 between males and females. dyslipidemia in A-group was seen in 35 (70.0%) patients while in B-group was seen in 18 (36.0%) patients (p-value = 0.001 and odds ratio = 4.1481).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: This study </strong><strong>concluded that the frequency of dyslipidemia is higher in lichen planus patients compared to healthy individuals</strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Lichen Planus, Cholesterol, Dyslipidemia, Dermatology</strong></p> Sana Khan, Muhammad Suleman Pirzado, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed Kalhoro, Nadia Rajper, Sikander Munir Memon, Faryal Hussain Memon Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Significance of Various Diagnostic Methods for the Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Infection <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine </strong><strong>the diagnostic significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by histological examination of tissues and rapid Immunochromatographic assay from stool samples.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong><strong> This retrospective comparative study was performed in the Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Suleman Roshan Medical College Tandoadam, from August to December 2020, on one hundred cases collected by consecutive nonprobability technique, of any sex and age, having a clinical opinion of H pylori disease. Samples were collected, and gastric endoscopic biopsies were performed in all cases in the department of Medicine and shifted to the Pathology department for registration and processing. The rapid Immunochromatographic assay of the same patients was also performed to isolate </strong><strong>H. pylori</strong><strong> from faecal samples. All the data collected were statistically analyzed using S</strong><strong>pss</strong><strong> 20, and the results were tabulated.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: O</strong><strong>n histological examination, </strong><strong>H. pylori</strong><strong> bacilli were detected in 90 (90%) patients, of which the male was 52(57.7 %). The age ranges from 14 - 85 years, with a mean of 47.9. </strong><strong>The histopathologically positive cases were compared with stool antigen, and </strong><strong>H. pylori</strong><strong> antigen in stool were isolated on immunochromatography technique in 48 (48%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of stool antigen were 52.74% and 90%, respectively, and the P-value was 0.011.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong><strong> H. pylori positivity is highly significant in histological examination of endoscopic gastric biopsies and may be identified by stool analysis as seen in this study which is noninvasive, most straightforward and has low expenses.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong><strong>:</strong><strong> H. pylori, Endoscopic Gastric Biopsies, Histological Examination, S</strong><strong>tool Antigen</strong></p> Rasheed Ahmed Soomro, Muhammad Kaleem, Riaz Ahmed Qazi, Faisal Irshad, Mehwish Zafar, Moin- ul-Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Design and Development of a Mobile Application for the Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis as a Public Health Problem <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: This study aims to design and implement a mobile application, "Viral Gastroenteritis", and assess mobile users' satisfaction with this application. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This study was conducted in February 2021 in two stages: designing and constructing a viral gastroenteritis disease application based on the Android system and investigating mobile users' satisfaction with this application.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Six hundred individuals responded to the questionnaire in this study; 36.5 % were males, 63.5 % were females, 35% were between 20-30 years old, and 43.83% had a bachelor's degree. The study results showed that more than 95% and 90% of the participants had no trouble installing the app. The images adequately conveyed the meaning of viral gastroenteritis, respectively. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: According to the inquiry outcomes, this didactic software can increase users' awareness when facing viral gastroenteritis.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Viral gastroenteritis, Public health, Mobile application, Software, Rotavirus, Norovirus.</strong></p> Milad Zandi, Ismaeil Alizadeh, Saber Soltani, Mohebat Vali, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Samaneh Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Young Adult's Health-Preventive Behaviors toward Coronavirus Disease 2019 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To explore the young adult's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health-preventive behaviors in Saudi Arabia. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: Semi-structured virtual interviews regarding health-preventive behaviors were conducted with 35 participants during the lockdown because of the pandemic. The Health Belief Model was used in the analysis and data presentation. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Young adults had feelings of fear, loneliness, anxiety, irritability, easy distraction, loss of concentration, and depression during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in this study were aware of the benefits of applying the health-preventive actions. The reported barriers hinder some of them from using some of the COVID-19 health-preventive steps are mainly related to social distancing and the curfew on some people. The participants reported their confidence in their COVID-19 health-preventive knowledge and stated that they could protect themselves and others from getting infected with COVID-19.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: According to HBM, they strongly believe in health actions efficacy in their country and followed the COVID-19 health-preventive actions. Participants had a positive perception regarding the threat and severity of COVID-19 infection. Financial consequences of the curfew, noncompliance with the preventive actions' and lack of awareness of the importance of the health-preventive activities of some people are among the barriers to applying the COVID-19 health-preventive measures.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: COVID</strong><strong>?</strong><strong>19, Young adult, Health promotion, Preventive Behaviors, Saudi Arabia</strong></p> Hayam Ibrahim Asfour, Nahla Hariri, Nahla Abdul-Gadir Tayyib, Fatmah Alsolami, Grace Lindsay Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Willingness to Pay for Covid-19 Vaccine by Frontline Health Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To explore the willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 vaccines among the frontline Health workers in Nigeria and the determinants of payment for COVID-19 Vaccines. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: A descriptive cross-section survey was carried out among 115 randomly nominated frontline healthcare workers using a multistage sampling technique in Kwara and Ogun States of Nigeria. The workers aged 18 years and above who consented to participate in the survey were eligible for the study. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23, and ethical approval was obtained from the institution. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: The results showed a 35.7% level of WTP, of which 78.6% of WTP respondents were ready to pay USD$10 for the Vaccine. More respondents with chronic diseases were eager to pay for the Vaccine at 77.8%, which was statistically significant. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: The predisposition of frontline healthcare workers to pay for the COVID-19 Vaccine increased with vaccine efficacy and less vaccine cost. The study revealed that most respondents were WTP USD$10 for COVID-19 vaccines. Trusted policy makers should be used for advocacy in combating the misinformation on COVID-19 vaccines. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: COVID-19 Vaccine, Willingness to pay, Frontline healthcare workers, Efficacy, Safety, Pandemic</strong></p> Saka Mohammed Jimoh, Abdullahi Ahmed, Oloyede Hassan Kehinde, Opowoye Segun Emmanuel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500