Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences <p>Journal of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (JLUMHS) Jamshoro, Pakistan publishes original research articles, reviews articles and case reports on topics related to medical and health sciences.</p> <p>JLUMHS is a peer reviewed open access journal and is published quarterly (4 issues per year) since July 2002.</p> <p>It agrees to accept manuscripts prepared in accordance with the “Uniform Requirements for submission of manuscripts for biomedical journals adopted by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), updated October 2001 (Refer JLUMHS July – December 2002 issue). </p> en-US <p><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5037">Articles in the Journal of Liaquat University of Medical &amp; health sciences are open access articles under a&nbsp;</span><a id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5038" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";q=;source=gmail&amp;ust=1488520198187000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGWIB6wh7wbxzRD1rqf0TeVvfij-g"><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5039"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License</strong></span></a><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5040">.</span><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5041">This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium; provided the original work is properly cited and initial publication in this journal. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.<span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5042">&nbsp;In addition to that users are allowed to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms</span>.</span></p> (Prof. Dr. Ali Muhammad Waryah) (Mr. Mansoor Ali Bughio) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 Understanding COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Tertiary Level Students in Malaysia Using the 5C Model - A Short Survey <p><strong>Objective: </strong><strong>To explore the attitudes of the tertiary level students in Malaysia towards COVID-19 vaccines to analyze the leading cause of vaccine hesitancy among this group. <br /></strong><strong>Methodology: </strong><strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2021 among undergraduates from 5 different private tertiary institutions across Malaysia. The data was obtained through an online survey using Google Forms and analyzed using Smart PLS 3 software. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><strong>The validity of the measurement model led to the structural model after bootstrapping. From the data analysis, it was confirmed that Collective Responsibility and Confidence had a significant positive relationship with vaccine hesitancy, while complacency, constraints and calculation did not seem to contribute to vaccine hesitancy</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: M</strong><strong>ost respondents have good knowledge about the vaccines and generally have a positive attitude towards COVID-19. The respondents were hesitant to get the COVID-19 vaccines because they were concerned about the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines as they are new and rapidly developed.</strong></p> <p><strong>KeyWords</strong><strong>: COVID-19, vaccine hesitancy, tertiary level students, Malaysia</strong></p> Novia Pratama Putri, Geetha Subramaniam, Lalita Ambigai Sivasamugham, Sharmini Gopinathan, Murali Raman, Sam Toong Hai Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Classification of Poisonings and Natural Toxins in Iranian Medicine and its Comparison with Modern Classification <h2>Poisoning is an essential public health issue that causes deaths worldwide yearly. This study aims to determine the Classification of poisonings and natural toxins in the Eighth to twelfth centuries AD in Iranian medicine primary sources and compare it with modern medicine. This research is a review study based on the library method. In this study, the terms in Persian and Arabic languages were extracted from the Al-Sumum section of Iranian medicine's primary sources. Current medical literature (using PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Magiran and SID databases) was also searched with equivalent terms. Then, the obtained results were expressed separately. The results showed that poisoning in Iranian medicine, in terms of entry; includes two categories of gastrointestinal and injectable, based on the type of toxic substance; it consists of three categories; plants, animals, and minerals, based on their habitat: They are divided into two categories; marine and terrestrial, and based on their temperament, they are divided into two categories: hot-tempered and cold-tempered. Poisonous animals such as snakes are divided into three classes: poisonous, semi-venomous and harmless. In modern medicine, the types of poisoning include two kinds of poisoning with medicinal and non-medicinal substances. These recommendations, which result from hundreds of years of experience of Iranian physicians, could be helpful; however, future experimental investigations are needed to approve their safety and efficacy along with the possible mechanisms of action.</h2> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: Poisons, Poisoning, Classification, History of Medicine, Medicine, International Classification of Diseases</strong></p> Jamal Rezaei Orimi, Ebrahim Nasiri, Hasan Siamian, Mostafa Moallemi, Azita Balaghafari, Sohrab Padashi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Fri, 14 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Educate and train healthcare professionals and healthcare profession students and make aware public about reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) <p><strong>Educate and train healthcare professionals and healthcare profession students and make aware public about reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs)</strong></p> Rano Mal Piryani, Suneel Piryani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Surgical Team Radiation Exposure from C-arm during Orthopedic Surgical Procedures <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: A C-arm device for accurate and better results during orthopedic surgeries seems essential. According to the linear carcinogenic model, exposure to X-rays can increase the risk of malignancy. Due to the lack of monitoring of hospitals in the region, we decided to measure the radiation exposure of the orthopedic surgery team.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Abadan Shahid Beheshti Hospital between August and October 2020 with prior ethical committee approval. All the participants fill out the consent form before participating in the study. The census gave twenty thermoluminescence dosimeters to the orthopedic surgery team. They were asked to place the dosimeters on the chest on their cover and use them in orthopedic surgeries for three months. Also, a questionnaire was distributed among the employees, and they were asked about the number of operations they attended and how long they were in the operating room</strong></p> <p><strong>Result</strong><strong>: The average annual dose received by the entire surgical team was 0.24 mSv, significantly differing from the annual limit. (P &lt; 0.001).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Even though the dose absorbed by the surgical team is less than the limits set by ICRP due to the carcinogenicity of even small amounts of radiation, the observance of protective principles is still recommended. Also, the surgery team involved in C-arm procedures should be controlled with monitoring tools such as TLD dosimeters.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Thermoluminescence dosimeters, </strong><strong>C</strong>-<strong>arm</strong><strong>, Occupational exposure, X-ray, Radiation protection, Orthopedic surgery</strong></p> Ahlam Almanie, Shima Seneysel Bachari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Mon, 03 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 The Pattern of Musculoskeletal Cancers in Pakistan <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: The study aimed to assess the pattern of musculoskeletal cancers in the Pakistani population who visited NIMRA hospital situated at Jamshoro.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: It was an observational retrospective study conducted at the Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) and LUMHS, Jamshoro, from August 2019 to December 2020. A total of 626 patients were selected for this study. The data regarding patients were sourced from NIMRA, LUMHS Jamshoro. All the patients of both genders and ages diagnosed at NIMRA with any cancer were included in the study. Patients who did not return for follow-up after their metastatic and laboratory tests were excluded from the study. A Chi-square test was conducted to assess the association between diagnosed cancers versus gender and age groups. The confidence interval was set at 95%, and the probability value ?0.05 was statistically significant.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: A total of 626 patients were selected for this study. Of them, 362 (57.8%) were males and 264 (42.2%) were females, with a mean age of 34.67 years and a standard deviation of 18.998. The most prevalent cancer is soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) 129 (20.6%), followed by chondrosarcoma 119 (19%), and osteosarcoma 91 (14.5%). Forty percent of the cancers were diagnosed as stage II, followed by stage III (22%), stage IV (22%) and stage-I (16%), respectively. A significant association between diagnosed cancers were found with gender (p=0.001) and age group (p=&lt;0.001).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Soft-tissue sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma are the most common musculoskeletal cancers in the Pakistani population.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words: Chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Musculoskeletal Cancers, Osteosarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Soft-tissue sarcoma.</strong></p> Sikander Munir Memon, Fayaz Hussain Mangi, Faheem Ahmed Memon, Champa Sushel, Abdul Ghani Shaikh, Tanweer Ahmed Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Mon, 03 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Surgical Results of Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma with Special Focus on Complication Rate <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To assess the results of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma with a particular focus on complication rate</strong><strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This retrospective descriptive case series of 45 consecutive patient studies included from the Neurosurgery unit, Hayatabad Medical Complex/MTI/ Peshawar, from August 2019 to July 2021. Patients of any age or gender who needed surgical removal of pituitary tumors were included. All non-pituitary lesions were excluded, including fungal lesions, angiofibroma, CSF rhinorrhea, craniopharyngiomas, and those managed conservatively. Pituitary adenomas were detected through MRI and biopsies from 45 patients with tumors. The outcome of the surgery, as well as any complications, were recorded. Data on demographic variables, </strong><strong>the duration in the hospital, postoperative </strong><strong>complications, and morbidity/mortality were collected. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 25. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: There were 55.5% male and 44% female patients out of 45 cases. The average age was 42 years and five months. The most prevalent presenting complaint was headache (91%). The surgical outcome was good in microadenomas and macroadenomas (83% vs 65 %). In total, 76% of patients experienced early surgical symptom relief. Seventy-six percent of our patients reported immediate symptom reduction following surgery. CSF rhinorrhea 5(11%) was the most common complication. In 50% of the patients, a gross total resection was achieved.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Pituitary adenomas are treated by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which had an acceptable postoperative consequence.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery, Pituitary Adenoma, Complication</strong></p> Sohail Amir, Muhammad Ali Noman, Shahid Ayub Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Intrauterine Balloon Tamponade versus Gauze Packing for Treatment of Post-Partum Hemorrhage <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To compare the efficacy and safety of uterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing in terms of success rate and complication to arrest the massive postpartum haemorrhage in women not responding to medical treatment. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This was a prospective comparative cross-sectional study conducted for six months from Jan to June 2019 at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences. The sampling technique used was non-probability consecutive sampling. All the patients with PPH not responding to medical treatment after vaginal delivery were enrolled. Cases with genital tract trauma retained placenta and coagulation disorders were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups. Uterine balloon tamponed (UBT) was used in group A and group B intrauterine gauze packing (IP). A comparison of two groups in terms of success rate was analyzed on spss version 22.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: A total of 103 patients were included; out of them, 50 underwent BTand 53 underwent uterine gauze packing; there was no remarkable difference among both groups according to age p-value of 0.502. Booked cases were higher in both groups, with a p-value of 0.513. The success rate was significantly higher in the balloon tamponade group at 96.0%, compared to the uterine gauze packing group at 84.9%, with a p-value of 0.048. Safety was more in BT Group 46(92.0%), and infection was common morbidity with uterine gauze packing group </strong><strong>13(24.5%) </strong><strong>as compared to BT </strong><strong>4(8.0%) </strong><strong>group, with a p-value of 0.001.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: It was concluded that BT showed better efficacy and safety in managing postpartum haemorrhage after normal vaginal delivery.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Balloon tamponade, efficacy, Intra uterine packing, PPH</strong></p> Shumaila Naeem, Fahmida Parveen Memon, Hira Najam, Afsheen Memon Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pus Isolates from Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To detect the most frequent bacterial pathogens causing wound infections and monitor their susceptibility profile at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: A retrospective cross-sectional study spanning 12 months from March 2020 to February 2021 was carried out at Patel Hospital Karachi. Wound swabs and pus samples were collected by sterile syringe and using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique from both inpatients and outpatients of all age groups and genders and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done using the disk diffusion technique per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Among 1000 samples, 725 (72.5%) showed growth, out of which Gram-negative bacteria were 524 (59%), and 359 (41%) were Gram-positive bacteria. Amongst the Gram-positive bacteria, the majority was </strong><strong><em>Methicillin Resistant</em></strong> <strong><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em></strong><strong> (MRSA 76%), followed by </strong><strong><em>Methicillin Sensitive</em></strong> <strong><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em></strong><strong> (MSSA 24%), </strong><strong><em>Streptococcus species</em></strong><strong> (4%) and </strong><strong><em>Streptococcus pneumonia</em></strong><strong> (3%). Vancomycin, Linezolid and Chloramphenicol were the most susceptible antibiotics against Gram-positive organisms. The frequent Gram negative organisms were </strong><strong><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em></strong><strong> (23%), </strong><strong><em>Eschericia. coli</em></strong><strong> (14%), </strong><strong><em>Klebsiella spp</em></strong><strong> (11%) and </strong><strong><em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em></strong><strong> (8%). Most Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to Amikacin, Meropenem and Piperacillin-tazobactam and Tigecycline.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong><strong><em>S.aureus</em></strong><strong> and </strong><strong><em>P.aeruginosa</em></strong><strong> were the most identified bacteria in pus samples with varying antibiograms. Growing resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was a severe concern in the current study. This study helps the physicians about the usual microorganisms encountered in pus samples with prudent prescription of antibiotics.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Bacteriological Profile, Antimicrobials, Pus, Wound Swabs, Antibiogram, MRSA, CRE</strong></p> Ambreen Fatima, Hareem Gohar, Kamran Dawood, Hira Zafar Siddiqui, Mehwish Sajjad, Saima Naseem Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Nursing Intervention Protocol on the Incidence of Intensive Care Syndrome among Critically ill Patients at Cairo University Hospitals <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To assess the impact of a nursing protocol of actions on the incidence of Intensive Care Syndrome (ICS) among critically ill patients. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: The study was conducted at Emergency Hospital ICUs affiliated with Cairo university hospitals from April 2020 to December 2021. The study's five research hypotheses were formulated "Critically ill patients who will receive the designed nursing intervention protocol will have; a decreased frequency of (ICS), improved knowledge &amp; practices level regards (ICS), decreased depression, anxiety, and delirium. A quasi-experimental (one group pretest-posttest) research design was utilized. A convenient sample of 31 critically ill adult patients participated in the current study. A nursing intervention protocol as an independent variable includes "early mobility, Range of motion exercises and enhancing patient knowledge through effective communication". Patients have assessed pre-intervention then, and then daily follow-up from day four to seven before discharge. Assessment sheets of intensive care syndrome were used for data collection. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Three hypotheses were supported as there is a significant statistical difference before and after implementation of the intervention protocol regarding knowledge (p .00), practice <br />(p .00), and delirium scores (p =.001); however, the other two hypotheses can't be supported as there were no significant statistical differences regarding depression and anxiety scores after implementation and ICS incidence. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: implementing the nursing intervention protocol can improve critically ill patients' functional and cognitive outcomes after having a critical illness. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Intensive Care Syndrome, Early Mobility, Delirium, Nursing Intervention Protocol, <br />Critically Ill Patients.</strong></p> Abdelhameed Mahros Abdelhameed Elshenawey, Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy , Neffisa Mohamed Abdelkader Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 The Association of Knowledge, Perception and Attitude of COVID-19 with the Psychological Status of the Public in Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the association of knowledge, perception, and attitude of COVID- 19 with the psychological distress status of the public in Saudi Arabia.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: A cross-sectional study was performed among 429 participants using an online survey after approval from Umm Al-Qura University in March 2020. Data collection took three months during COVID- 19 outbreak (May-July 2020). An online survey was composed of items related to knowledge, perception, attitude, and the population's psychological status during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Association tests were used at a significance level of &lt; 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Nearly 80% of the participants had variable degrees of psychological distress. There were significant associations of perception (fear of being infected with COVID-19, (p &lt; 0.05), fear of being in contact with patients with COVID-19 (p &lt; 0.05), and fear of inability to continue their usual activities/work (p &lt; 0.05), changes in social habits (p &lt; 0.05), and following the precautional measures to prevent acquiring COVID-19 infection (p &lt; 0.05) with psychological status. At the same time, the association of Knowledge regarding COVID-19 with psychological level was not statistically significant (p = 0.221).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Most of the participants had variable degrees of psychological distress. There were significant associations of most of the elements of perception and attitudes of the public regarding COVID-19 with their psychological distress. The public should implement psychological support programs during the pandemic to help them overcome COVID-19-related psychological distress. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Attitude, COVID-19, Knowledge, Perception, Psychological Status, Public</strong></p> Hayam Ibrahim Asfour, Nahla Hariri, Nahla Abdul-Gadir Tayyib, Fatmah Jabr Alsolami, Grace Lindsay Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Level of Anxiety among Undergraduate Students of Major Public Sector Dental and Medical Colleges, Peshawar <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To find out the level of anxiety among undergraduate students of major public sector dental and medical colleges in Peshawar </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two public sector hospitals, Khyber Medical College and Khyber College of Dentistry Peshawar, before their annual objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) from March to April 2021. Institutional ethical permission was granted through IREB Ethical approval Certificate. Students of MBBS and BDS were included in the study. Students with any psychiatric illness or thyroidal illness taking medications were excluded. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used for sample collection. A validated and pretested generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 7 scale was used to measure anxiety. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Out of 342 students, 333 (223 MBBS and 110 BDS) were enrolled in the study. Nine students were excluded from the study. One hundred and eighty-eight were male, and 145 were female. The mean age was 23.54±1.98 SD years. Nighty six (28.8%) students had minimal anxiety, 100 (30%) had mild anxiety, 75(22.5%) had moderate anxiety, and 62(18.6%) had severe anxiety. There was a significant difference in anxiety levels of both genders (P-value ? 0.001). With a cut-off value of ?10, 138 (41.4%) had a diagnosis of GAD. There was no significant difference in anxiety levels of MBBS and BDS students (P-value 0.073).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Generalized anxiety disorder affects a large population of medical students, affecting female students more than males. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Anxiety, Prevalence, Medical students, Mental health, Anxiety disorders, GAD Scale</strong></p> Zahidullah Khan, Inamullah Khan, Zahid Muhammad Wazir, Abdul Khaliq, Zahid Fida, Iqbal Haider Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500 Association between Physical Health and Well-being: A Quasi-experimental Study <p><strong>OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between physical health and well-being among college students in a state university and private college.</strong></p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong><strong>The study used a quantitative method, utilizing a pretest-posttest study design on 178 college students. The test group received three months of the health and well-being program while the control continued their activities of daily living (ADL). Nutrition, physical activity, and sleep were measured using the adapted Canadian Community Health Survey - Annual Component–2021. Well-being was evaluated using the modified positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishments (PERMA) questionnaire. Phase 1 includes gathering the participants' socio-demographic profiles, and the research concludes with the evaluation of the program. </strong><strong>SPSS v.27 was used to analyze the data. </strong></p> <p><strong>RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis results for engagement </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .26, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .92)</strong><strong>, relationships </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .21, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .06)</strong><strong>, accomplishments </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .22, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .31)</strong><strong>, and the overall PERMA </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .13, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .42) </strong><strong>were greater than the significance level of 0.05</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>However, positive emotion </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .26, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .006) </strong><strong>and meaning </strong><strong>(</strong><strong><em>r</em></strong><strong>(176) = .23, </strong><strong><em>p</em></strong><strong> = .02) results were </strong><strong>less than the </strong><strong>significance level of </strong><strong>a</strong><strong>=0.05 </strong><strong>indicating evidence of significant relationship. </strong></p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: The study has established that positive emotion and meaning are significantly related to physical activity, nutrition, and sleep.</strong></p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: P</strong><strong>hysical health, wellness, online health, college students</strong></p> Resti Tito Villarino, Maureen Lorence Villarino, Maria Concepcion Temblor, Prosper Bernard, Michel Plaisent Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0500