Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences <p><br><br></p> Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences en-US Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 1729-0341 <p><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5037">Articles in the Journal of Liaquat University of Medical &amp; health sciences are open access articles under a&nbsp;</span><a id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5038" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";q=;source=gmail&amp;ust=1488520198187000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGWIB6wh7wbxzRD1rqf0TeVvfij-g"><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5039"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License</strong></span></a><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5040">.</span><span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5041">This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium; provided the original work is properly cited and initial publication in this journal. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.<span id="m_-8439229129138740232yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1488432955502_5042">&nbsp;In addition to that users are allowed to remix, tweak and build upon the work non-commercially as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms</span>.</span></p> Clinical Presentation and Surgical Management of Intestinal Tuberculosis Presented as an Acute Abdomen <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To review the various clinical presentations and different surgical options in the management of intestinal tuberculosis at a tertiary care hospital.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This two-year descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at LUMHS; using a convenient sampling technique, all patients aged between 18-60 years of either gender presented with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction or peritonitis were admitted. Detailed history, thorough clinical examination, and relevant investigations were performed. Only those patients in whom, per operative findings of intestinal tuberculosis and later on confirmed histopathology were included in this study. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 22, and results were analyzed for mean, frequency, and percentage.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: A total of 47 patients with intestinal tuberculosis were included. The mean age was 27.01±4.88 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.6:1. The most common constitutional symptom was weight loss in 85.1%patients, followed by fever 51% and anorexia 57.4%. Common abdominal symptoms were pain 93.6%, distension 72.34%, nausea and vomiting in 55.31%, and alternating bowel habits in 42.55% cases. 61.7% of patients presented with signs of acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction followed by peritonitis in 21.2% and abdominal mass in 17% of patients. Ileostomy was the lifesaving procedure performed in 40.4% of cases. Other procedures were adhesiolysis, stricturoplasty, limited right hemicolectomy, segmental small bowel resection, and end-to-end anastomosis.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Intestinal tuberculosis is still an endemic disease in low-resource countries. Clinical presentation mimics many other abdominal conditions results in a delay in diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should always be kept in mind to diagnose this contagious disease.</strong></p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS: Intestinal tuberculosis, Constitutional symptoms, Intestinal obstruction, Ileostomy</strong></p> Champa Sushel Khurram Abbas Binafsha Manzoor Syed Shiraz Shaikh Qasim Mallah Muhammad Rafique Pathan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 21 01 1 5 Frequency of Surgical Site Infection after Open Appendectomy using Antimicrobial Sutures <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the frequency of Surgical Site Infection after open appendectomy using antimicrobial sutures.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: Present study design was prospective case series conducted after the approval from the Research, Training and Monitoring Cell of CPSP in Department of Surgery, Dr.Ruth K.M Pfau, Civil Hospital Karachi/ Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi from December 2017 to May 2018 with non-probability sampling technique. All patients between the age of 15-40 years of either sex who visited the Emergency Department and were diagnosed clinically with acute appendicitis were included in the study. Patients with generalized peritonitis or per-operative findings of malignancy, perforation, or gangrenous appendix were not enrolled. Open appendectomy was carried out in all patients, antimicrobial coated sutures were used throughout the surgery, and the patient was kept under follow-up for 3 months in surgical OPD to detect any clinical feature of SSI. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Among 139 studies cases, 76 (54.68%) were male, and 63 (45.32%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The age range was from 15 to 40 years with a mean age of 27.23±5.97 years. The majority of the patients, 88 (63.31%), were between 15 to 30 years of age. In this study, frequency of SSI after appendectomy using antimicrobial coated suture was found in 14 (10.07%) patients.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: The results demonstrate that the frequency of surgical site infection after incorporating antimicrobial sutures (Triclosan) is not significantly different statistically as expected in clean-contaminated abdominal surgery.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Acute appendicitis, antimicrobial coated sutures, open appendectomy, surgical site infection.</strong></p> <p> </p> Ayesha gul Raheel Ahmed Erum Kazim Dileep Kumar Imrana Zulfikar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 21 01 6 10 Comparison of the Efficacy of Medical Expulsive Therapy for the Treatment of Distal Ureteric Stones with and without Mirabegron <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To compare the efficacy of expulsive medical therapy for treating ureteric stones with or without mirabegron as an add-on to Diclofenac. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: A prospective randomized controlled trial was undertaken between April 2018 to March 2019 at the Asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Sindh. A total of two hundred participants who had ureteric stones were enrolled using non-probability convenience sampling. Diclofenac Only 100 mg/day (group A, n=100), and Mirabegron 50 milligrams/day + diclofenac 100 milligrams/day (group B, n=100) were administered to patients, adjunctively. Age, sex, site, size of the stone, and laterality were noted. The stone expulsion time for each patient was evaluated. SPSS version 24 was used for analysis. A p-value of 0.05 or less was set as the cut-off value for significance. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Age, sex, site of stone, and laterality were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.886, p=0.755, p=0.168, p=0.321, &amp; p=0.889, respectively). Spontaneous stone expulsion ratios were observed as 43% and 71% in group A and group B (p&lt;0.0001), respectively. However, no statistically significant association was found between mirabegron and the stone expulsion time (p=0.667). Group B showed a significantly higher stone expulsion rate in patients with stone size &gt;4mm (p=0.04). The SER for middle and distally localized stones was higher in group B with a statistically significant p=0.02.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: The present study indicated that combined therapy with both mirabegron and Diclofenac is more effective than monotherapy with Diclofenac only. Mirabegron is a safe drug that improves the stone expulsion ratio in ureteric stones by &gt; 4mm.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Mirabegron, Ureteric stone, Colic, Medical Expulsive Therapy, Efficacy, Diclofenac</strong></p> Zakir Hussain Rajpar Imran Idrees Memon Kashifuddin Qayoom Soomro Syed Azhar Hussain Shoukat Ali Mughal Naveed Soomro Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 21 01 11 15 Evaluation of Pattern and Impact of Electrolytes Abnormalities in Critically Ill Covid-19 Patients <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To evaluate the pattern of serum electrolytes abnormalities and their impact on ICU admitted Covid-19 patient outcomes.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This retrospective study was carried out at OMI hospital and Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, between August to December 2020. Total 102 PCR positive, ICU admitted with severe Covid-19 patients as per WHO criteria were included. The patient's demographic characteristics, clinical features including co-morbidities, electrolytes reports at the time of admission, length of ICU and/or hospital stay, and outcome (expired/survived) were evaluated.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Biochemical testing found abnormal electrolyte levels in 90.2% ICU admitted Covid-19 patients. Electrolytes abnormalities including hyponatremia 45.1%, hypermagnesemia 40.2%, hypocalcemia 31.4%, hyperchloremia23.5% and hyperphosphatemia in 20.6% patients. Out of the total, 28.4% of patients needed invasive respiratory support, and 37.3% could not survive. A higher incidence of mortality (39.1% vs. 20%) was seen in patients with electrolytes abnormalities compared to those presented with normal values.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Electrolyte abnormalities were found in 90% of the ICU Admitted Covid-19 patients. The most common abnormalities found among the patients were hyponatremia, hypermagnesemia, and Hypocalcemia. The findings revealed that several electrolyte imbalances harm patients' in-hospital outcomes. Electrolyte assessment of Covid-19 patients at the time of admission would be helpful in risk stratification for adverse outcomes.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Covid-19, critically Ill, ICU stay, serum electrolytes, abnormalities, respiratory support, death.</strong></p> Anita Haroon Syed Ali Abbas Amanullah Khan Momina Ali Rija Qazi Ajeet Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 16 22 Sunlight Exposure on Sars-Cov-2 Samples; Descriptive Analysis <p><strong><u>ABSTRACT</u></strong></p> <p><strong>OBJECTIVE</strong><br> <em>To evaluate the effect</em> of sunlight on PCR positivity of SARS-COV-2 positive samples in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY<br> </strong>After institutional approval, naso-pharyngeal swab samples were taken from eight positive (ascertained by PCR) nCovid-19 patients were obtained and divided into numerous units so that sample of each individual patient could be tested 12 times by PCR (inclusive of six controls and six tests samples). Six control samples were kept in laboratory environment while six were kept in sunlight (each for a differing duration i.e. 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) and the temperature and humidity levels recorded. A sample will undergo PCR test (along with its time matched control at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes and its SARS-COV-2 positivity recorded. Following the experiment, the samples shall be discarded as per institutional protocol.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong> <br> Among the 8 samples (each tested in six different batches after exposure to sunlight for varying amounts of time), most i.e. 45 (93.75%) tested positive for SARS-COV-2. However, there may be a relationship between length of exposure to sunlight and PCR positivity of the samples, since all 3 samples that tested negative were exposed to sunlight for more at least 30 minutes. All controls (placed in laboratory and not exposed to sunlight, tested positive).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong> <br> The results reveal that effect of sunlight on PCR positivity of SARS-COV-2, is not clear and despite international use of UV light for disinfection, very limited success can be achieved by exposure to plain sunlight.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<br> </strong><u>SARS-COV-2</u>, <u>nCovid-19</u>, <u>Ultraviolet Light</u>, <u>Sunlight</u> <u>PCR &amp; UV Light</u> and <u>Nasopharangeal Swab</u>.</p> Shameem Bhatti Pardeep Kumar Waheed Ali Syed Mujahid Hassan Naseem Khatoon Bhatti Kanta Ahuja Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 23 26 Depression among Cancer Patients: Risk Factors and Coping Mechanism <h1><strong style="vertical-align: super; font-size: 14px;">Objective:</strong><span style="vertical-align: super; font-size: 14px;"> To gauge the prevalence of depression and; identify the potential risk factors as well as coping strategies among cancer patients.</span></h1> <p><sub><sup><strong>Methodology: </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during from March-2018 to November-2018 at <strong>Clinical Oncology Department</strong>, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL) Lahore. The purposive sampling technique was used and interviewed 118 sampled cancer patients. Interview schedule, depression Scale and coping scales were used as instrument to collect data. Depression items, age, economic status, family support, duration of cancer, stage of cancer and coping strategies were the variables of the study.</sup></sub></p> <p><sub><sup><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the study indicated that 16% respondents had low level of depression, 72% medium while 12% had high level of depression. In case of coping mechanism, majority of respondents adopted cognitive restriction, emotional expression, information seeking, self-blame, Wish Fulfilling Fantasy, and threat minimization as coping styles. All the predictor variables including age, economic status, family support, and duration of cancer were found significantly associated with depression. The results of correlation analysis indicated a negative association between depression and coping strategies.</sup></sub></p> <h1><sub><sup>Conclusion: Considering the diverse effect of depression and repeated use of various coping strategies, comprehensive steps are needed to screening and counseling of cancer patients that will be effective for their mental wellbeing.</sup></sub></h1> Aaqib Shahzad Alvi Ibad Ullah Sajid Muhammad Ashraf Muhammad Ali Tarar Hira Bilal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 27 32 The Effect of Allied Health and Nursing Staff’s Online Covid-19 Related Information-Seeking Behaviors on Preventive Behaviors against Covid-19 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong><strong>To</strong> <strong>evaluate allied health and nursing staff’s online COVID-19 related information-seeking behavior to prevent COVID-19 infection. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This study was cross-sectional research performed from February to May 2020 that surveyed allied health and nursing staff working in healthcare settings, whether full or part-time, of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Two valid questionnaires, such as preventive behaviors and online COVID-19 related information-seeking behaviors, were used. Multiple logistic models were used to explain the correlation between one dependent binary variable and other variables. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: 291(94.8%) had good preventive behaviors. 239 (77.9%) of the participants, after getting online health information from the Internet, very often search the obtained data in other books and journals; 240 (78.2%) very often compare the received data with information on other websites; 252 (82.1%) very often consulted with physicians about the obtained information. There was a relationship between online COVID-19 related information-seeking behaviors (Beta = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06 and P&lt;0.001) and preventive behaviors. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Health-care workers use various information-seeking strategies to decrease the chance of finding inaccurate data and misjudging the correct data. This study shows that healthcare workers’ behavior to see credible information related to COVID-19 significantly affects their preventive behaviors.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Information seeking behavior, Preventive behaviors, COVID-19, Internet, Allied health, nursing staff.</strong></p> Mehdi Kahouei Marjan Momeni Shahrbanoo Pahlevanynejad Fatemeh Rahaei Samira Sadat Yaghoobi Mojtaba Soltani-Kermanshahi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 33 38 Effects of Hospital Base "Discharge Teaching" on Self-Care among Post Myocardial Infarction of Follow-Up Patients at Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the effectiveness of hospital-based discharge teaching on self-care among post-myocardial infarction patients.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at Cardiology Outpatient Department (OPD), Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, from April to October 2019, and data were collected from 180 follow-up post myocardial patients at cardiology OPD with first-time heart attack and stable angina at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad. Participants were approached through the purposive sampling method. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Variables were calculated by frequency and percentage. A bar graph was used for graphical presentation for analysis.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: There were 180 participants included in this study, 93 (51.7%) females and 87 (48.3%) male participants. The majority (78.3%) of the participants were from urban areas. It was observed that 98.3% of patients felt improvement, and 90% of participants were satisfied with discharge teaching. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: This study concluded that a well-organized discharge planning&nbsp;program is very effective treatment or intervention to improve patient health status. It can change&nbsp;life style behaviors of the patient and reduce complications and hospital readmissions.</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Myocardial infarction, heart failure, hospital base discharge teaching</strong></p> Ranjeeta Bai Musarat Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 39 43 Assessment of Psychological Impact on the Health Care Workers due to Covid-19 Pandemic in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Karachi <p>OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi.</p> <p>METHODOLOGY: This is a multi-centric cross-sectional study conducted at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi (Pakistan). Total of 350 health care workers including both males and females, from different private and Government tertiary care hospitals were approached and enrolled after fulfilling the selection criteria from 22 May 2020 till 22 Aug 2020. The semi structured Performa was used for demographic details while Patient health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD 7) were administered for evaluation of depression and anxiety respectively.</p> <p>RESULTS: In this study, out of total 350 participants, 220 (62.8%) has depression while 206 (58.8%) has anxiety. Degree of depression was mild in 81 (23.1%) of health care workers, moderate in59 (16.8%), moderately severe in 50 (14.2%), severe in severe in 30 (8.6%). Similarly, mild anxiety was present in 75 (21.4%), moderate in 74 (21.1%) and severe anxiety in 57 (16.3%) persons. The most common problem they faced is ?Fear of transmission of disease family /close friends? being present in 311 (88.9%) p-value = 0.014 CONLUSION:</p> <p>It is evident that health care workers are affected with depression and anxiety due to pandemic. It is necessary to take appropriate steps in order to manage psychological impact of the stress so that they can be more productive in their respective fields.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Health care workers; Depression; Anxiety, COVID-19 Patient health questionnaire-9; generalized anxiety disorder-7</p> Shanila Feroz Ali Kauser Mahmood Zaib Un Nisa Muhammad Saad Raza Syeda Zain Iqbal Hussain Udaipurwala Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 44 49 Awareness of Dental Undergraduates, Post Graduates and Dental Practitioners' about Dental and Biomedical Waste Management <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To assess undergraduate, postgraduate dental students' and dental practitioners' knowledge of management of dental and biomedical waste and to focus on critical issues such as environment-friendly waste management.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: A total of 273 participants were recruited from January to June 2019 through convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study; undergraduate, postgraduate dental students, and general dental practitioners from private and public sector dental colleges of Karachi. The respondents answered different categories of waste management, including biomedical waste rules, waste disposal measures, dental waste types, common dangers of improper waste management, and some particular equipment problems, data analyzed on SPSS version 17.00. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: From 273 (92.8%) completed questionnaires, 217(79.4%) were females. Undergraduate students were 61.9%, (n=169). Almost 64.4 % (n=176) of respondents didn't know about dental waste management rules. Among 75 % (n=205) of respondents, there was a consensus that qualified professionals should treat hospital disposal. Only 67.7% (n= 185) of individuals surveyed stated that they were familiar with the categories formed by dental waste. Approximately 95.5% (n=260) of respondents recommend workshops and Continues medical education seminars for waste management. Compared to undergraduate students, postgraduate students had a significantly higher mean score, decreasing the "know-do gap" (p=0.069).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Among undergraduate dental students and dental practitioners, postgraduates were found to have a greater understanding of the correct methods for disposing of healthcare waste. However, the overall knowledge level of environment friendly waste management was insufficient. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Disposal of medical waste; Understanding of health, attitudes, practice; Dentistry</strong></p> Muhammad Abdullah Kamran Uzma Zareef Tauseef Ahmed Raffat Rasool Nabeel Khan Mehwash Kashif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 50 54 Bullying, Victimization, Rejection Sensitivity, and Self- regulation in Positive Development of Adolescents <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To explore the interaction of bullying and victimization, rejection sensitivity, and self-regulation on the positive development in adolescents.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: Cross-sectional research was conducted at the Department of Psychology, the University of Gujrat, from June to September 2019. In phase I, Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (RSQ), and Positive Youth Development Inventory (PYDI) were translated in Urdu with the permission of their authors by forward-backward translation method. The pretesting was conducted on 130 adolescents selected from random sampling techniques from the public and private colleges of Sara-i-Alamgir. The scales were found reliable with 0.71,0.83, and 0.85 coefficients, respectively. In phase II, with a stratified random sampling technique, 608 students aged 16 to 19 years with Yamane Formula were selected; after informed consent, Urdu versions of SRQ, RSQ, PYDI, Adolescent Peer Relationship Instrument (APRI), and demographic sheet were given to patients. AMOS-21 version was used to analyze the interaction path among the study variables via a structural equation model. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: Structure Equation Modeling on the data of 608 students confirmed the validity of the model as it was found significant with the p-value &lt;0.001. The model fit indices (CMIN/DF=2.32, CFI=0.99, AGFI= 0.97, GFI, 0.99, TLI=0.98, RMSEA- 0.04, &amp; RMR =0.66) were obtained in acceptable range.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: The buffering effect of self-regulation plays a significant role in the development of adolescents' personalities positively while safeguarding them against the impact of bullying, victimization, and rejection sensitivity. </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: Adolescent Health, Bullying, Personality Development.</strong></p> Sameera Shafiq Sidra Batool Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 55 59 Cognitive Deficits in Patients of Depressive Disorder <p>OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of cognitive deficits in patients of Depressive disorder.<br />METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre<br />(JPMC), Karachi,from September 2018 to March 2019. The sample size of 250 was calculated through<br />customary techniques, and the sampling technique was non-probability consecutive sampling. Those<br />patients who were diagnosed with cases of depressive disorder were enrolled in the study. The data<br />were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Packages of Social Sciences) version 22.0. <br />RESULTS: Out of the total of 250 cases, 114 (45.60%) were males, and 136 (54.40%) were females with an<br />average age of 33.62±11.07 years. Among 250, the majority, 178 (71.20%), were married and Illiterate 90<br />(36.00%). Among all participants, 136 (54.4%) belonged to middle socio-economic and 120 (68.0%) were<br />household by occupation. Out of 250 cases, 135 (54%) were drug naïve, while 114 (45.6%) were on active<br />treatment. Cognitive dysfunction was present among 169 (67.6%). Educational status, treatment status, <br />and duration of diseases were considerably related, with cognitive dysfunction having a p-value of less<br />than 0.05. <br />CONCLUSION: The rate of Cognitive dysfunctions among patients with depressive disorder is high and<br />alarming. <br />KEY WORDS: Cognitive deficits, Depressive disorder, Frequency, Patients, Perceived Dysfunction Questionnaire, Score.</p> Muhammad Ilyas Jat Ali Bux Rajper Chooni Lal Kataria Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 60 64 The Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Land Mark Technique in Lower Abdominal Surgery <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: To determine the efficacy of pain for Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdmominis Plane Block versus landmark technique in lower abdominal surgery.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: </strong><strong>This Randomized Control trial study was conducted from July to December 2018 at the Department of Anesthesiology, Peoples Medical University &amp; Hospital </strong><strong>Shaheed Benazirabad</strong><strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>The sample techniques were used randomly through envelopes, and the sample size was 120.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong><strong> The study findings revealed that age distribution among L and U groups regarding gender was 70% females 66.7% females. Moreover, for ASA status in the L group, 58.3% of the participants stand in 2-4 ASA status, whereas in the U group, 50% of the participants were in ASA status 1 and 2-4 each. The bilateral block was performed among 85% of the participants in the L group and 96.7% of the participants in the U group. In the surgical procedure in the L group, 15% underwent appendectomy, whereas, in the U group, 28.3% underwent lower c- section. The overall rate of postoperative pain at 60 minutes was observed in 10 women among both groups. Statistically significant results among both groups with a p-value of 0.001.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: Our study results showed that surgeries performed using Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block are more effective with less postoperative analgesia.</strong></p> <p><strong>KeyWords</strong><strong>: Efficacy, Ultrasound Guided Tranversus Abdominis Plane Block, landmark technique, Lower Abdominal Surgery, Anesthesia, TAP block</strong></p> Muhammad Saleh Khaskheli Rafia Tabassum Aijaz Hussain Awan Almas Imtiaz Salamullah Shah Zaigham din Baloch Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 65 69 Assessment of Patient Knowledge Regarding the Pandemic COVID-19 at Dow Dental College <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the patient’s knowledge regarding the COVID-19 as pandemic itself and its precautionary measures.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional research was carried out among dental patients visiting the Dow Dental College Karachi's OPD. The research lasted three months, from August 2020 to October 2020. Dental patients of either gender who visited the dental OPD and were over the age of 18 and willing to engage in the study were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was initially created and pretested. The questionnaire was developed in compliance with the COVID-19 community recommendations of the CDC and WHO. The questionnaire was divided into three sections: socio-demographic variables, COVID-19 knowledge and awareness, and COVID-19 prevention practices. The estimated number of dental patients attending the dental OPD each month is 3200, thus using this as a population size, the sample size computed was 344 by using open epi and retaining the power at 80%, the confidence interval at 95%, and the margin of error at 0.05 percent.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In total, 344 patients took part in the research. In terms of COVID-19 pandemic knowledge, the majority of patients (317/344) felt that the most frequent signs and symptoms linked with COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, and a dry cough. The majority of them thought that wearing a mask and washing their hands properly was required to reduce the effects of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings revealed that the majority of the participants had strong understanding of COVID-19 itself as a pandemic, displayed positive attitudes and excellent behaviors for avoiding disease infection transmission.</p> Saad Uddin Siddiqui Syed Kashif Abrar Ziauddin Kashmiri Muhammad Mustafa Zeeshan Nasir Saqif Nasir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 70 74 The effect of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning method on student`s performance in the Class Assessment Test (CAT). A Quasi Experimental Study <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning method on the students’ performance in the CAT.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> this quasi-experimental design study was conducted in Indus College of Nursing and Midwifery in Karachi. The study duration was extended due to COVID-19 from December 2020 to September 2021, the sample was estimated on Openepi, version 3, by previous study pre&nbsp;&nbsp;post mean and standard deviation (23.75±3.46 &amp; 19.65±4.7) 31 with confidence level 95%, power 80% and total sample size was 16 in each group but as samples were easily reachable, then 60 male &amp; female participants of third year students means 30 in each group were taken through consecutive sampling method. SPSS version 22.0 was used to data entry and interpretation.<br><strong>Results:</strong> out of the 60 participants 52% were male &amp;amp; 48% female. 82% respondent’s age were lies amid 18-22. Above the half of subjects (52%) having matriculation. The meaningful difference (7.03 ± 2.44 &amp; 14.48 ±2.45) was observed among pre &amp;amp; post test of both traditional and jigsaw groups and it is also arithmetical significant (0.00).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> it is accomplished that there is much knowledge difference in pre &amp; post test but no difference among lecture method and comparative learning method.</p> Aftab Ghouri Abdul Rehman Muhammad Zaman Sheeraz Anum Imran Masih Zuhra Shahjhan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 21 01 75 78