LIAQUAT MEDICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL <p>Liaquat Medical Research Journal (LMRJ) is a Gold Openaccess Journal, publishes basic, clinical and para-clinical aspects of medical sciences including Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Parasitology, Hematology, Microbiology, Radiotherapy, Radiobiology, Medical Imaging, Medical Informatics, Medical Physics, Nutrition, Virology, and any animal experimental studies in the form of original articles, reviews and case reports.</p> Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences en-US LIAQUAT MEDICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL 2664-5734 <p>Copyright: Open access journal copyright lies with authors and protected under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence (</p> Pandemonium of diseases after floods – An emerging major health issue in Pakistan <p>Floods and heavy rain bring another disaster of diseases and pose a huge burden on the health care system. Pakistan is currently facing a major natural disaster of this decade, where Sindh and Baluchistan are badly affected. Millions of people are homeless and live in camps, shelter homes, or tent cities. The diseases that emerge immediately after floods include gastroenteritis with diarrhoea and vomiting, followed by vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria and dengue fever) influenced by the growth of mosquitoes in the stagnant water. Due to unhygienic conditions and overcrowded camps, skin diseases emerge later. Altogether this situation causes major burden on the already weakened health care system, which is devastated due to rain and even destroyed in some places. Thus proper planning and preventive measures need to be taken on an urgent basis.</p> Ikram Din Ujjan Copyright (c) 2022 Ikram Din Ujjan 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-01 Histopathological changes in the placentas of mothers with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy- A comparative cross-sectional study <p>This study aimed to evaluate histopathological changes in the placentas of mothers who had contracted COVID-19 during pregnancy. This prospective study involved the histopathological assessment of two groups of placentas submitted for evaluation to the Department of Histopathology at Khoula Hospital, Oman. The first group consisted of 48 placentas derived from COVID-19-positive pregnant women delivered at the centre between March 2020 and March 2021. The control group consisted of an additional 48 placentas derived from asymptomatic mothers who were not tested for COVID-19 but were assumed to be negative. All placentas underwent gross and microscopic histopathologic examination. Placental lesions were classified according to the Amsterdam system. There was a significantly higher frequency of fibrin thrombi at the terminal villi in placentas derived from the COVID-19-positive group compared to the control group (72.9% versus 0%; <em>p-value </em>= 0.001). Also, villous hypoperfusion was significantly more common in COVID-19-positive placentas than in controls (16.7% versus 0%; <em>p-value</em> = 0.006). However, no significant differences between the two groups were noted with regards to the frequency of other histopathologic features, including decidual vasculopathy, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, intervillositis, perivillous fibrin deposition, and infarction.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Hunaina Al Kindi Nada Al Muqaimi Samah Al Abri Mina George Rahma Al Kindi Copyright (c) 2022 Hunaina Al Kindi, Nada Al Muqaimi, Samah Al Abri, Mina George, Rahma Al Kindi 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-02 Clinico-epidemiological evaluation of chronic folliculitis of leg- A single study from southern India <p>This study was conducted to determine the clinico-epidemiological evaluation of chronic folliculitis of the leg in the southern Indian population. This was a prospective observational study, undertaken over a period of two years. All patients attending the outpatient department Southern Indian tertiary care hospital's Dermatology Department (M.K.C.G.Medical College &amp; Hospital, Odisha) were recruited. A total of 100 patients were enrolled, aged between 12 to 70 years with a M: F ratio of 10.1: 1. Eighty per cent of the population in the study were rural, and 20% belonged to the urban area. Clinical characteristics and demographic data of the patients were collected in a pre-designed proforma. Those patients who had pustules on the leg underwent pus culture and sensitivity test. Majority of the patients presented with papules and pustules (96%cases) and bilateral symmetrical leg involvement (98% cases). Pruritus was the most common clinical presentation ( 90% cases). Staphylococcus was isolated in the majority of cases (80%) and was sensitive to Amikacin (73%), Linezolid (70%), vancomycin (68%), and Gentamycin (65%). Chronic folliculitis of the leg is mainly a disease of young adult males of low socioeconomic status. Avoiding aggravating factors and cautious use of sensitive antibiotics may achieve treatment goals and decrease recurrence.</p> Dr Manasi Mishra Dr Surajit Nayak Dr Prasanna kumar Rathor,. Dr Maheswar Samanta Dr Satyadarsi pattnaik Dr Prasenjeet Mohanty Copyright (c) 2022 Manasi Mishra, Surajit Nayak, Prasanna Kumar Rathor, Maheswar Samanta, Satyadarsi Pattnaik, Prasenjeet Mohanty 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-03 Mini-PCNL in pediatric patients with large renal stones- A safety data <p>Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a recent advancement in the management of urolithiasis, it has now become the gold standard. This study aimed to assess the safety of mini PCNL in pediatric patients with large renal stones. This cross-sectional study included pediatric patients (n=12) who underwent mini-PCNL. Age, gender, number of stones, size of stones, and position in the renal system were documented. The mean age of the patients in the study was 7.67 years. The stones ranged from 10 mm to 20 mm with a mean size of 10 mm. Complete clearance of stones was achieved in 83.7%. 16.7% had incomplete clearance with clinically insignificant residual stones (i.e. &lt; 4mm) requiring no further treatment except follow-up. The major complication in our series was hydroperitoneum in one patient, which was identified and managed by placing the intraperitoneal drain. Patients were discharged from the hospital on or before 3rd post-operative day. The study concludes that Mini-PCNL method is effective, safe, and economical for the removal of renal calculi in the paediatric age group. Further large scale studies exploring methods to lessen its morbidity would be recommended specially in patients with renal stone complications like hydroperitoneum.</p> Kashif Ahmed Khan Waqar Ahmed Memon Javed Altaf Jat Ali Raza Jaffery Adeel Hyder Arain Salman El Khalid Copyright (c) 2022 KA Khan, WA Memon, JA Jat, AR Jaffery, AH Arain, SE Khalid 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-04 Evaluation of pattern of computer vision syndrome disorders in young adults – A cross-sectional study <p>The study was designed to evaluate the pattern of computer vision syndrome disorders in young adults. All patients (n= 138, 74 males and 64 females) coming with complains of dry eyes, eye strain, burning eyes, redness, blurring and headache were included. These patients were aged between 18 to 35 years with at least 2 hours’ exposure to any type of Visual Display Terminal (VDT). The mean age of the study population was 20.4 years. The majority of the study subjects were males, i.e. 74 (53.6%). Around 78.2% of study populations had refractive errors. Myopia was the most significant refractive error found in 53.6% of the study population. The prevalence of CVS in our study group was 89.1%, with headache as the most common symptom reported in 68.8%. Furthermore, 94.9% of participants were viewing the screen from a distance of 30 to 40cm and 81.9% of subjects were using VDTs at night in bad ergonomic conditions. These findings point to the height of the health issue, which needs to be addressed with clear instruction for the use of proper screen protections and safety time cut-offs for the use of computer screens.</p> Izmal Urooj Muhammad Asif Memon Mehak Nazir Jatoi Azma Azher Sanjha Memon Dur Bibi Sadama Shaikh Kibria Awan Uzma Baloch Copyright (c) 2022 Izmal Urooj, Muhammad Asif Memon, Mehak Jatoi, Azma azhar, Sanjha Memon, Dur Bibi, Sadama, Kibria Awan, Uzma Baloch 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-05 Rise in mobile gadgets use for school learning and health issues of children- Long-term sequelae of covid-19 pandemic <p>COVID-19 pandemic has brought a paradigm shift in education with a trend of online learning and even schooling. During complete lockdown period schools were shifted to smartphones and computers. This study aimed to explore the pattern of smartphone use before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and the health issues of school-going children in post-COVID-19 period. There was a significant rise in the timings of mobile phone use from 2 hours to 7 hours per day. A total of 90% of student’s mothers reported behavioral change where lack of socializing was the most commonly reported change. Irritation of eyes and dryness were the most commonly reported ocular disorders. The rise of mobile phones has brought several behavioral and ocular disorders due to long hours of use. There is a need to confirm health-related issues of smartphone use in large prospective studies and develop preventive strategies.</p> Nabia Shah Ahmed Muhammad Shaikh Fasiha Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Nabia Shah, Ahmed Muhammad Shaikh, Fasiha Shah 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-06 Use of rigid, fixed brain retactors is harmful for the brain <p>While operating upon the brain, deep seated lesions need to be approached by using retractor’s system, due to the soft and gelatinous nature of the brain. Using a conventional rigid, fixed retractor system for brain retraction appears harmful. As an alternative Thudicam Nasal Speculum (TNS) retractors can be used. This study was aimed to explore the outcome of TNS retractors in brain surgery. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Ziauddin University hospital north campus and National Medical Center Defense, Karachi, Pakistan, during a period between August 2019 to March 2020. A total of 60 patients were included (42 males and 18 females), with a median age of 25 years. In all these cases intra-cranial hematoma were removed with unremarkable damage, in aneurysm clipping it was found useful, without damaging adjacent areas and extraction of brain tumors was found to be very easy and non-damaging to the surrounding brain tissue. Patients had a follow-up period of about 03 months and contusion, ischemia or brain edema was not present in any patient. Only one patient died during second month after surgery due to Ischemic stroke of contra-lateral MCA. The study concludes that using TNS retractors was very helpful and non-damaging to the brain.</p> alvia saad Naveed Khan Muhammad Saad Usmani Shua Nasir Lal Shehbaz Copyright (c) 2022 alvia saad, 1. Dr. Naveed Khan, muhammad saad usmani, 3. Dr. Shua Nasir, 4. Dr Lal Shehbaz 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-07 Primary enterolith and jejunal diverticula causing small bowel obstruction- A case report <p>Small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus accounts for about 0.3% to 0.5 % of all patients with gallstone disease. Formation of primary intestinal stones causing obstruction and requiring laparotomy is very rare, and the presence of the diverticula adjacent to the stone precipitating in the stone formation is a rare phenomenon. A rare case of primary enterolith and jejunal diverticula is presented here. An older women presented with small bowel obstruction found to have dual pathology; operated for removal of stone and had uneventful recovery.</p> Almas U Qazi Ajay Tokala Ikhlas U Qazi Copyright (c) 2022 Almas U Qazi, Ajay Tokala, Ikhlas U Qazi 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 4 3 10.38106/LMRJ.2022.4.3-08